Periodontal Disease and Your Dog

Dental disease can be found in 85% of pets over the age of 3. Periodontal disease is the most common dental disease and if left untreated can cause tooth loss and cause damage to all the major organs, heart, liver, kidney and brain. Untreated dental disease can shorten your pet’s life span by 3 years.

So what is periodontal disease?

Periodontal disease begins with plaque build up on the surface of your dog’s tooth. Just like in humans, the plaque starts as a biofilm of bacteria mixed with food particles and saliva. If this film is not removed, it eventually layers into what is known as tartar.

The tartar begins to mineralize and the bacteria begin to infect the gum causing gingivitis. As the tartar continues to build up, it works it’s way beneath the gum causing the gum line to recede. Eventually, the infection continues to spread and will loosen the attachment of the tooth and tooth loss will occur.

Besides the tooth loss, the gum infection also begins to shower the dog’s blood stream with tiny bits of bacteria. These bacteria will begin to settle in all the major organs, especially the mitral valve of the heart and in the kidneys. This can lead to congestive heart failure and kidney failure and ultimately the untimely death of your pet.

So what can I do to prevent dental disease?

Start with getting your pet used to having his teeth brushed at an early age. Just like in humans, plaque replaces itself every 12 hours, so optimally, your pet’s teeth should be brushed twice a day. Do not use human toothpaste, the fluoride could be swallowed by your pet and cause toxicity. Use toothpaste that is designed and flavored just for pets. I know that brushing your pet’s teeth is hard to do, but brushing really helps keep their mouth healthy.

Also available are special diets such as Hill’s t/d to mechanically remove the tartar and keep the pet’s teeth clean. There are also enzymatically treated chews, such as greenies and C.E.T. chews that can help remove the plaque and tartar.

There are also dental oral rinses and Breathalyser water additives to help with oral hygiene.

Once tartar is formed on your pet’s teeth, your veterinarian will need to scale and polish your pet’s teeth under anesthesia to remove the tartar that is beneath the gum line. Once removed, it is up to you to practice good dental care with your pet with daily brushing and other dental products to keep the mouth healthy.

Sometimes Good Medicine is Simply Good Nutrition

For pets with chronic health issues, veterinarians might recommend specific therapeutic diets.  Designed to provide the right type of nutrition for the pet’s unique problems, these diets are often used for the lifetime of the pet.   But, when finances are tight, are these “prescription diets” really worth the cost?

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Feeding your dog or cat seems like an easy chore, but if your pet is suffering from kidney disease, allergies or even cancer, his nutritional needs require special attention.   Most veterinarians keep an inventory of therapeutic or “prescription” diets on hand to help manage chronically sick pets.   In spite of the benefits provided by these diets, the weak economy and rising prices have many owners thinking twice about staying on the more expensive diets.

In 1940, Dr. Mark Morris, a veterinarian in New Jersey, was treating one of his patients, “Buddy”, for kidney failure.   “Buddy” was one of the first “seeing eye” guide dogs in the United States.  Dr. Morris found that he could improve Buddy’s quality of life by providing him with a diet that helped ease the work of his kidneys.  He named this new diet “k/d” for kidney diet and he quickly became inundated with requests from veterinarians for his special food.

Dr. Morris continued to study how the right foods can benefit patients suffering from a variety of diseases.  His visionary work sparked a multi-million dollar industry dedicated to providing optimal nutrition for chronically ill pets.  Today, companies such as Hill’s Pet Foods, Purina Veterinary Diets, Iams, and Royal Canin all commit extensive resources towards research and production of therapeutic diets.

These special diets differ from routine pet foods by the reduction, addition, or manipulation of key nutrients.  For example, k/d has much lower phosphorus and protein levels than normal pet diets.  This balance helps reduce the workload of the kidneys and actually slows the progression of the disease.  For pet stricken with cancer, high levels of quality fat and protein with lower carbohydrate levels can help starve cancer cells and prolong the pet’s life.

Special therapeutic diets are also available for pets with allergies, urinary bladder stones, digestive issues, heart conditions, liver problems and even arthritic pets.

But, all of this scientific research and expertise does come with a cost.   Therapeutic diets often appear to be unusually expensive when compared to regular diets.   As an example, a 30 lb bag of a prescription diet for dogs suffering from allergies can cost more than $90.  For a typical 60 lb dog, this bag of food should last around 45 days, meaning that the daily food cost is $2 per day.

Some owners are tempted to take matters into their own hands and create homemade diets for their pets.  According to the Small Animal Clinical Nutrition text, homemade recipes are often available for a variety of pet illnesses.  However, once the cost of ingredients is added, along with time spent in preparation and extra trips to the grocery, these homemade diets are often just as pricey as the commercially prepared food.

And, without veterinary guidance, these attempts at cost savings often end up hurting the pet.  Owners take short cuts and buy cheaper meats and/or grains due to personal preference or availability of the ingredients.  These lower quality or different ingredients can adversely affect the pet and even worsen his or her underlying disease.  One study also estimated that more than 90% of homemade diets for sick pets are not nutritionally adequate.

So, how can owners keep their pet’s diets from emptying their wallets?  First, talk with your veterinarian about your pet’s overall health condition.  Some pets are put on certain therapeutic diets for a limited time only.   If your pet is overweight, battling bladder stones, or even suffering from digestive upset, it is likely that you only need to feed the special diet for a limited time.

Next, if your pet does need his prescription food for a longer time, order in larger size bags.   The initial cost is certainly higher, but you will save money on a per feeding basis since large bags cost less per pound.

Many veterinarians stock only one brand of therapeutic diet due to lack of storage space and high inventory costs.   Ask your veterinarian if a competing food manufacturer has a diet similar to the one your pet needs and if a cost difference exists.  If the food is indicated for your pet’s illness, it’s possible to save a few dollars with a different brand.

Finally, consider having the diet shipped directly to your home.   Several of the pet food manufacturers offer home delivery of the foods.  This option could save you time and gas money.

These therapeutic diets have enabled millions of dogs and cats to live longer, happier lives despite their illnesses.   On-going research will continue to discover how we can provide the highest level of nutrition to our pets, no matter what illness or condition they might encounter.  Veterinarians will continue to rely on these diets because of their proven track record.